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There are hundreds of dog breeds out there for us to love at home or ogle at online. In fact, as of 2020 there are about 350 dog breeds recognized around the world. And that’s not even counting the many other variations that may not be recognized independently. In short, we are truly fortunate and privileged to have so many of these furry buddies to love. However, there are many others who over time have become extinct or critically endangered.

Some extinct dog breeds you may never have heard of and will never get to see include the Paisley Terrier, Cumberland Sheepdog, and Dogo Cubano. Here are 46 more extinct pooches and what we will miss most about them.

49. Marquesan Dog

RtW2009 832 Sheep? Dog??? Llama ?!!!!

The Marquesan Dog is an ancient breed that was native to Pacific Islands inhabited by Polynesian settlers. Unlike breeds today, these dogs were kept for a mixture of religious purposes as well as for consumption.

Yep, you read that right.

What is interesting about this breed is that it was always a rare dog even back when it was still around. It seems it never really stood a chance of surviving into modern times.

48. Lapponian Shepherd

To kvinner i en teltåpning bearbeider skinn. en hund med hvalp i forgrunnen - Norsk folkemuseum - NF.13714-010
Anna Grostøl, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Despite popular beliefs, the Lapponian Shepherd did not actually originate from the Lapland region of Finland. However, the people who bred and used them most in the southern regions were from there.

They very closely resemble relatives like the Alaskan Malamute and the Siberian Husky with their wolf-like appearance and their black and white or black and tan coats. Like their relatives, they were also primarily used for pulling sleds.

47. Old Welsh Grey Sheepdog

Old Working Dog Beardie and Old Welsh Gray Dogs
Photographs of the Old Working Dog Beardie type (A,B) and the Old Welsh Gray Dog (C,D) (now extinct). The photograph shown in C was taken by Barbara Carpenter, Rhandirmoyn, Wales, in around 1987. Images taken from the Border Collie Museum.

This extinct pooch breed is believed to be one of the main genetic contributors to what is today known as the Welsh Sheepdog.

However, unlike this now popular descendant, the Old Welsh Grey Sheepdog has a bit of a rougher appearance with a long, shaggy coat.

The extinction of this breed is widely considered to be as a result of the increased popularity of the versatile and highly intelligent Border Collie in Europe.

46. Seskar Seal Dog

Seiskarinkoira Seiskari dog
Seiskari, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

As the name suggests, these doggies were used to hunt seals in northern European countries like Finland. As seal hunting became less popular, their demand and in turn their breeding drastically reduced. By the mid-20th century, these dogs were extinct.

Breeders later developed the Seskar dog as an ode to the bright and friendly extinct pooch. However, despite their dark coats and spitz-like appearance, the two breeds have nothing else in common.

45. Thylacine

The Thylacine was truly an enigmatic creature. Yes, we call it a creature and not a dog.

This is because, given its physical features and behavior, it is hard to say whether this was a dog in the way that we know dogs. However, the upper torso, and head region were very doglike and reminiscent of the wolf ancestors.

However, it was the hind legs, butt, and tail area that threw many historians off. This is because of their big catlike nature including tiger stripes and a long, strong tail.

44. Terceira Mastiff

Fila de Terceira.jpg
By Falecido - dutch-stafford, Public Domain, Link

This is an extinct dog that left behind a legacy that can only be described as totally badass. This was mainly due to its foreboding appearance as well as its strong and often aggressive personality.

Local lore has them linked to all sorts of intriguing aspects of history from their presence in Spanish pirate ships to their history as popular fighting dogs.

Their legacy lives on through some of their ferocious descendants with the most notable being the Fila Brasileiro.

43. Smithfield

Technically speaking, the Smithfield is not completely extinct. However, it is dangerously close as their numbers play within the range of critically endangered dog breeds.

Unfortunately, this is yet another breed whose demand slowly dwindled as other shepherding dogs like the Border Collie and German Shepherd, the very same breed the 46th POTUS has, grew in popularity in Europe.

However, there are efforts by several small scale breeders around the world to revive the breed. And with their sweet personalities and cute little faces, we sure hope they succeed.

42. Sakhalin Husky

Karafuto-Ken or Sakhalin Husky 1911

These dogs’ slow march towards extinction is closer in our history than many of us realize. In fact, as of 2015, there were only seven Sakhalin Husky purebred dogs around the world.

For the most part, these doggies flew under the radar carrying out different tasks in their homeland of Russia from sledding to guarding.

It wasn’t until 1958 that they were thrust into the international limelight when 15 of them were left stranded after an Antarctica expedition went wrong.

41. Fuegian Dog

The Fuegian dog is unlike any other breed out there in that it originated not from wolves or foxes but from a South American canid known as a Culpeo.

They were known for their wild features with everything from their wiry fur and their fox-like skull features to their aggressive personalities.

Another unique thing about these doggies is their extinction might have been intentional, with a lot of them being exterminated due to their dangerous nature.

40. Celtic Hound

These dogs are more legend than they are historic facts. In fact, there are theories that the dogs referred to in Irish myths are actually different ancestors of breeds like the GreyHound and Iris Wolfhound.

In their day, the hounds were fierce hunting dogs capable of going up against formidable foes including large, wild animals like wolves. They were valued for their combination of bravery and athletic prowess.

39. Rastreador Brasileiro

This is a Brazilian breed that was bred as a hunting dog due to its impressive stamina and great scent tracking skills.

Its extinction story is quite unique compared to others on this list. This is because it was heavily influenced by environmental factors like disease and toxicity from agrochemicals.

Despite efforts by breeders in the area to save the purebred Rastreador dogs for repopulation, the breed was extinct by the late 20th century.

38. Dalbo Dog

By Hanna Ferlin - Svensk jakt 13 mars 2013, Public Domain, Link

The Dalbo dog was a shepherd dog used not only to guide livestock but also to protect them from wild animals including wolves and bears. And as a large molosser type of dog, it was more than up to the task.

However, even in their peak numbers these doggies were quite rare. This is because they were expensive to keep and their demand was low.

This coupled up with safer livestock herding regions and a rabies outbreak had the Dalbo Dog completely extinct a few years into the 20th century.

37. Chiribaya Dog

These dogs are likened to breeds like the dachshund today due to their short legs and disproportionately long torsos.

These doggies were greatly valued in their day both as companion dogs and working dogs. They were very popular and used mainly to help with herding of llamas and other small livestock.

However, as the Chiribayan society faded into obscurity, so did their numbers rendering them extinct.

36. Welsh Hillman

Welsh Hound from 1915
not specified (except those with signature on image), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

At its peak in popularity, the Welsh Hillman was an incredible herding dog and a plausible descendant of Welsh wolfhounds. It was a combination of sheer strength, agility, endurance, and confidence. This also made it a formidable opponent against any most animals that threatened the herd they were taking care of.

Like a few other breeds highlighted on our list, the Welsh Hillman was never a wildly popular dog and purebred versions were rare even centuries ago.

35. Old Spanish Pointer

John Buckler - The Spanish Pointer - Google Art Project
Yale Center for British Art, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Old Spanish Pointer is probably the oldest pointing breed. It has contributed to some of the most popular hunting dogs today including the English Pointer.

It goes without saying that their great intelligence made them very popular. They were very easy to train for specific tasks especially when it came to hunting jobs.

They were also very athletic displaying not only speed and agility but also enough endurance to maintain their momentum through long hunting expeditions.

34. Tahitian Dog

Double canoes. Tipaerua, 1769-71 (crop of dog)
A. Buchan, S. Parkinson or J. F. Miller, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This is one of the 5 main types of Polynesian dogs introduced to different Pacific Islands thousands of years ago. Specifically, they were found in Tahiti and the Society Islands.

Like their other counterparts that we will discuss in this list of extinct breeds, these doggies served multiple purposes including being kept for their meat.

These doggies in particular were treated very specially and only served up as delicacies to esteemed guests on very rare and important occasions.

33. Bull And Terrier

01. Bull and Terrier, Paris 1863. "Rose"
L. CREMIÈRE, PHOT, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Bull and Terrier was a mixed breed doggy developed from Old English Terriers and Old English Bulldogs.

They themselves have contributed greatly to some of the most famous dog breeds today including problematic breeds like the Bull Terrier, American Pit Bull, and the American Staffordshire Terrier.

Just like its descendants, this dog had quite a mean streak and was particularly popular in dog fighting circles for its aggression and violence.

32. Argentine Polar Dog

Tokuretsu, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

At first glance, the Argentine Polar dog is hard to distinguish from spitz-type breeds today. This is because it is a mix of some of the most popular spitz-like snow dogs which are the Alaskan Malamute and the Siberian Husky.

They were bred for strength, endurance, and intelligence which were all traits that came in very handy to the Argentine army.

These impressive dogs did everything from pulling sleds and guiding soldiers to serving as rescue dogs. It’s a real shame they are no longer around.

31. Kurī

Kuri, Maori or native dog, Dominion Museum collection, 1924
Unknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This is another one from the Polynesian dog family and was found mainly in New Zealand.

The common theme of having these dogs as delicacies can be seen when talking about these dogs. However, none have been described in as much detail and with as much praise as the Kurī.

Yes, it is a bit weird imagining our furry best buddies as dinner. However, it is important to remember that these breeds were introduced mainly as part of livestock with other animals like chicken.

30. Salish Wool Dog

This is yet another dog that was kept for quite a unique purpose. Don’t worry, this one wasn’t on the menu for the Salish People of what is today’s the Pacific NorthWest region of America.

As the name suggests, these doggies were actually kept for their fur. This ancient tribe did not have access to sheep or other woolen livestock and had to rely on the thick coats of the Salish Wool Dog.

29. Hawaiian Poi Dog

The Hawaiian Poi Dog was one of the first of the Polynesian breeds and is actually thought to be an ancestor to the Kuri breed that was found in New Zealand.

These doggies were very important to local culture where they were kept mainly as lucky charms and as religious symbols. Due to this status, they were rarely consumed except on very rare occasions and by very special people.

28. Braque du Puy

Dupuy Pointer from 1915
not specified (except those with signature on image), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This breed was a hunting masterpiece combining the intelligence and sharp skill of its pointer bloodline with the speed and agility of breeds like the greyhound that it is believed to have been related to.

This is yet another breed that seemed doomed for extinction from the very start given how rare they were in their own native country of France. Their extinction was closely linked to both world wars of the 20th century where hunting was discouraged and their demand reduced significantly.

27. Alaunt

Portuguese Alaunt dog Bocanegra. Cão Alão português
Unknown author, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Alaunt is closely related to Mastiff descendants and resembles breeds like the Dogo Argentino with its short snout, skin flaps, and stocky build. However, that is where all the similarities end as the Alaunt was a much gentler breed than the Dogo Argentino and other more aggressive relatives.

They were kept primarily as herding dogs for their alertness, dominating personalities, and surprising gentleness especially towards smaller animals. They were also often kept as companion pets.

26. Talbot Hound

Dog breeders and historians have a hard time figuring out exactly what it was that made the Talbot Hound so special as a hunting breed.

If its relation to modern day breeds like the bloodhound and beagle are anything to go by, it was probably their incredible sense of smell. However, historical records also mention their incredible speed and focus which led some to believe it was also a sighthound.

Whatever the case was, the Talbot Hound was great at its job.

25. North Country Beagle

Beagle (PSF)
Pearson Scott Foresman, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The North Country Beagle was wildly popular in Northern England especially in the 18th and early 19th century. These dogs were used as hunting dog both for their scent tracking skills and their great speed.

Their decline in popularity and eventual extinction cannot be traced to a specific factor. However, it is believed that their popularity as parents in mixed breeds was a disadvantage as they failed to live up to their stronger and more effective mixed offspring.

24. English White Terrier

English White Terrier 1890
Ivob, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This breed graced mankind with its presence for all of 30 years before disappearing slowly but surely into extinction.

They were developed experimentally by selectively breeding perky eared varieties of the breed. This was for the most part an aesthetic decision meant to make them more appealing to the masses. 

To put it gently, this plan blew up massively in their faces with the resulting English White Terrier turning out sicklier than they had expected.

23. Moscow Water Dog

This was one of the products of military breeding efforts by Russia’s Red Star Kennels. The doggies had quite the ancestry with contributions from giant breeds like the Caucasian Shepherd, Newfoundland, and the East European Shepherd.

Size-wise, the dog was just as big as its ancestors which made it perfect for different jobs in the military including guarding stations and pulling carts.

Despite their development for use as rescue dogs, their aggression was hard to breed out and made them ineffective in the task.

22. Norfolk Spaniel

Technically speaking, this breed is not exactly extinct in the way other breeds on our list may be. It just lost its independent breed status and got absorbed into the English Springer Spaniel breed. This was because their numbers were few and the standards too diverse to justify having them as independent breeds.

Their influence can be seen in modern spaniels with traits like their stubbornness and difficulty to train as well as their intense affection for their human handlers.

21. Russian Tracker

Russian Yellow Retriever from 1915
not specified (except those with signature on image), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Russian Tracker is very close in resemblance to the Golden Retriever with everything from the lanky build to the long, wavy, golden locks. This is to be expected considering that Goldies are actually direct descendants of this extinct breed.

Unlike the retriever, however, these dogs were used more as herding dogs where they helped to guide and protect livestock. However, they also occasionally served as hunting dogs.

20. Tesem

Tesem couple.png
Public Domain, Link

The Tesem was one of the 3 main dog breeds found in ancient Egyptian drawings. They are closely related to the sloughi hound dogs and featured a similar lean and long form. This is why it is believed that they were used as hunting dogs as well as for protection purposes for both nobility and civilians in ancient Egypt.

Another distinguishing feature that stands out in their hieroglyphic depictions is its tightly curled tail.

19. Toy Bulldog

Toy Bulldog Little Knot 1903
W.D. Drury, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Toy breeds are incredibly popular today. However, human infatuation with our tiny furry buddies did not start recently. The toy bulldog is the perfect example of this dating back to the 18th century.

They were developed mainly by selectively breeding smaller bulldogs in each litter. However, this proved problematic as the mini bulldogs were rarely fertile. And when they were, Chances of offspring coming out regular or medium sized became too high to justify the efforts.

18. Alpine Spaniel

Barry dog
Book: James Watson, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The St. Bernard dog is one of the best known rescue breeds in the Swiss Alps region but it was not the only one.

The Alpine Spaniel actually precedes the now popular breed and was used to track lost travelers on the alps and to help drag them back to safety. Where they couldn’t, their incredible sense of direction came in handy when helping rescuers locate those in need of help.

17. English Water Spaniel

English Water Spaniel
Henry Bernard Chalon, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

You know a dog is pretty awesome if it finds its way to great works of literature like Shakespeare’s McBeth. That is exactly the kind of street credit the English Water Spaniel brought to the table back when it was a huge deal in Europe.

These dogs loved the water and were essentially built for it with their thick, waterproof coats and strong legs. That is why they were used in retrieving waterfowl. But as the practice of hunting died down so did their demand and numbers.

16. Alpine Mastiff

1815 Alpine Mastiff
unknown 19th century artist, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This is one of the biggest dog breeds on our list. It is also considered one of the original giant breeds and has given rise to lovable beasts like the Saint Bernard breed.

These doggies were mainly kept as work dogs due to their sheer strength and their high endurance. They were used to pull carts, herd livestock, and even guard homes. However, their large size made them difficult to take care of which led to their decline in popularity and eventual extinction.

15. Southern Hound

Southern Hound
Gilbert Gihon, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Southern Hound was a relatively popular hunting dog in its day with its excellent scent tracking skills. While it was not very fast, it was very resilient and would often be used to wear down prey through relentless chasing.

Due to such traits, the Southern Hound was often used in mixed breeding to produce stronger and faster dogs with the same endurance and scent tracking skills. Slowly but surely, these superior mixed breeds took over in popularity.

14. Bullenbeisser

Falecido. Provavelmente Alfred Edmund Brehm., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Bullenbeisser is quite similar in appearance and strengths to other mastiff breeds on this list of extinct doggies including the Alpine Mastiff. The Large dog’s name translates to “bull biter” in Germany which is why it is otherwise referred to as the German Bulldog.

As with some other breeds on our list, extensive cross breeding was the main cause of the extinction of this breed as the descendants gained more popularity.

13. Blue Paul Terrier

The origins of this now extinct breed are hotly contested but it is believed to be a mix of the Irish Blue Terrier and the Bull and Terrier breed from England.

The result was a medium sized pooch very similar to today’s bulldog with its stocky build, broad skull, and short, shiny fur. The fur was often dark blue or greyish in color which thus their name.

12. Chien-Gris

Gris De Saint-Louis from 1915
not specified (except those with signature on image), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This is easily one of the oldest extinct dog breeds with roots as far back as medieval times.

It was used primarily as a hunting dog mainly due to its scent tracking skills. It was also strongly built and therefore very agile and resilient even though not the strongest hound in its day.

The strong scent tracking as well as their general power also made them popular in their prime as guard dogs both domestically and in prisons.

11. Toy Trawler Spaniel

Sarah Hartwell, Attribution, via Wikimedia Commons

This breed is believed to be a close relative to the original King Charles Spaniel especially their curly haired variety. It was very popular in the 17th and 18th century as a herding dog and was also sometimes used for hunting duties like chasing to wear out the prey.

However, as it came closer to its extinction in the early 20th century, the Toy Trawler Spaniel was mainly kept as a companion dog. It was also quite popular in dog shows.

10. Tweed Water Spaniel

Tweed Water Spaniel
John Carlton, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This was a waterdog known for its unique aesthetic with its thick, curly, liver-colored coat. In addition to their use in hunting waterfowl, these doggies were also popular companion pets. They were preferred by outdoorsy dog lovers due to their athletic nature and their general love for the outdoors.

It is very unfortunate that these friendly and super intelligent dogs are no longer around us. However, their legacy lives on with the likes of the Golden Retriever and the Curly Haired Retriever.

9. Cordoba Fighting Dog

Capoxc2, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This extinct dog breed had quite the controversial lineage with bloodline contributions from some of the most aggressive dog breeds ever. These include the boxer, bulldog, bull terrier, and English Mastiff.

They were bred for one thing and one thing only and that was to fight. Unfortunately, this contributed greatly to their eventual extinction as most of them died during the brutal fights.

8. Old English Bulldog

02. Old English Bulldog, 1863. Paris, France. 2
L. CREMIÈRE, PHOT, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

This is not to be confused with the Olde English Bulldogge which is actually a recreation of this now extinct dog breed.

The original breed was a bit shorter than modern descendants but was just as athletic. They were kept mainly for the purpose of bull baiting which definitely contributed to their dwindling numbers over the years.

They were rarely kept as companion pets due to their unruly nature and their predisposition to aggressive behavior.

7. Turnspit Dog

H Weir, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Like most of the breeds on our list of extinct doggies the disappearance of the Turnspit Dog had everything to do with their purpose and the demand trends over time.

They got their name from their job which was to turn contraptions used to cook meat over fires. However, as automated systems became available to even the lowliest of chefs, the demand for these doggies plummeted. Eventually, no one needed them and so no one bred them.

6. St. John’s Water Dog

St Johns dog
Unknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Newfoundland region of Canada is widely celebrated in the dog world for giving us the gift of the gentle giant that is the Newfoundland Dog.

However, this was not the only breed worth celebrating to have hailed from this land.

The St. John’s Water Dog is actually sometimes referred to as the Lesser Newfoundland Dog. They may not have been as popular as their larger comrades but they were valued enough to be used to create one of the most successful breed families, the retrievers.

5. Molossus

This is a truly ancient breed that can be traced back to the old Greek kingdom of Molossia. This was so much more than a dog to people back then and was considered more of a cultural symbol with appearances in all genres of ancient literature.

This was mainly due to its large size, incredible strength, high intelligence, and confidence.

Unfortunately, a combination of factors including extensive mixed breeding and environmental catastrophes robbed us the privilege of ever getting to see their greatness for ourselves.

4. Tahltan Bear Dog

Tahltan Bear Dog sketch2
Pharaoh Hound, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

This is yet another gem from Canada. However, they were very rare when they were still around. However, lack of demand sealed their fate with their extinction in the late 20th century.

The mid-sized dog was spitz-like in appearance and despite its compact form was quite strong and confident. It was therefore often used for things like guarding homes and livestock as well as light manual labor around farms in Northern Canada.

3. Hare Indian Dog

John James Audubon., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The word “Indian” here is used to refer to native tribes in North Canada where this dog was first domesticated. Unlike many extinct pooches on our list, the Hare Indian Dog was a pure breed and is actually believed to have been domesticated from jackals or wild dogs in the area.

Whatever its origins, the dog was used by these tribes as a hunting dogs specifically for tracking and chasing small prey like hare.

2. Cumberland Sheepdog

The origins and eventual extinction of the Cumberland Sheepdog are not very straightforward. With the former, there are some experts who consider it a relative of the Australian Shepherd while others dispute these claims.

On the other hand, it is not clear whether they actually went extinct as individual breeds or were absorbed into the Border Collie breed.

Whatever the case, these were beautiful and hardworking dogs that had a lot to offer.

1. Paisley Terrier

William D. Drury, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Paisley Terrier is a direct ancestor to the wildly popular Yorkie Terrier. Like their descendants, these little doggies were known for their beautiful coats which could be grown out and groomed to floor length.

They were also just as spirited and affectionate and were popular companion lap dogs for the working class. They also served as working dogs mainly helping with killing vermin in farms and serving as watch dogs where their yappy nature came in handy.

Related Questions

How Do Dog Breeds Go Extinct? Dog breeds tend to go extinct mainly as a result of reduced demand for their purebred forms. This means that breeders are not motivated to breed more of the doggies which with time dwindle in number and die of. Rarely, environmental factors like war or extreme weather have been linked to the disappearance of some breeds.

Where Did Dogs Come From Originally? Dogs are believed to be originally from Europe where they evolved from wolves and were domesticated. Initially, their domestication was for tasks including pulling carts and sleds as well as guarding. However, they soon became companion pets and even show pets as dog competitions became more popular.

What Was The 1st Breed Of Dog? It is widely believed that the oldest dog breed in history is the Basenji. It can be traced back to Central Africa and are also found in ancient Egyptian depictions. However, there is some controversy with this title among other historians claiming that the Japanese Akita is the oldest dog breed in existence.

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